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A full strength dosage of the most researched non-prescription Vitamin A derivative is a lightweight gel serum delivery system. Formulated with Niacinamide, Vitamin E and plant extracts this product is designed to help rejuvenate the appearance of the skin and give an overall improvement to skin texture. Formulated to help rejuvenate the appearance of the skin and give an overall improvement to skin texture. Manufactured / packaged under nitrogen, into airless containers. As we age our skin experiences a number of physiological changes such as thinning of the dermis and epidermis as well as a reduction in keratinocytes and collagen production. In addition to natural ageing, the skin is repeatedly exposed to environmental stressors such as UV radiation, pollution etc. Thinning of the dermis and epidermis results in a less effective skin barrier function and in turn leads to higher environmental stressors, higher trans-epidermal water loss and vulnerable skin. Retinol exhibits powerful anti aging action by increasing the production of keratinocytes (cells which produce keratin), endothelial cells (increases dermal vascularity) and fibroblasts (synthesizes collagen and extracellular matrix). This in turn leads to: - Thickening of the epidermis - Stimulation of collagen production - Increase in skin firmness - Increase in cellular renewal - Decrease in fine lines and wrinkles Retinol has shown to inhibit UV induced Matrix Metalloproteinases (enzymes which degrade collagen and prevent new collagen production). Regulate oil production and reduce acne/blemishes. Reduce collagenase. Brightens skin tone. Evens out skin tone. Increases wound healing. Considerably less erythema, irritation, TEWL, compared to tretinoin / retinoid acid. Retinol boosts the effects of hydroxy acid peels due to increased cellular renewal, increased epidermal healing and enhanced penetration of the peeling agent. Retinol can be resumed after all evidence of peeling and irritation subsides. References: • J Invest Dermatol. 1995;105:549–56. • Skin Res Technol. 1998 Nov;4(4):237-43. • Nature. 1996 Jan 25;379(6563):335-9. • N Engl J Med. 1997 Nov 13;337(20):1419-28. • Journal of Cosmet Dermatol. 15, 49-57 • Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015 Aug 26;8:455-61. • Arch Dermatol. 2007;143(5)606-12 • Int J Cosmet Sci. 2017 Feb 39(1)56-65 • J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Aug;107(2):178-82. • Skin Res Technol. 1998 Nov;4(4):237-43. • J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Mar;114(3):480-6. Warning – May cause irritation. Skin may also start to shed dead skin cells within the first week and may last a further week. Avoid direct and unprotected exposure to sun. DO NOT use during pregnancy. DO NOT use on sensitive skin conditions.


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